Cities host diverse people and their mixing is the engine of prosperity. In turn, segregation and inequalities are common features of most cities and locations that enable the meeting of people with different socio-economic status are key for urban inclusion. In this study, we adopt the concept of economic complexity to quantify the sophistication of amenity supply at urban locations. We propose that neighborhood complexity and amenity complexity are connected to the ability of locations to attract diverse visitors from various socio-economic backgrounds across the city. We construct the measures of amenity complexity based on the local portfolio of diverse and non-ubiquitous amenities in Budapest, Hungary. Socio-economic mixing at visited third places is investigated by tracing the daily mobility of individuals and by characterizing their status by the real-estate price of their home locations. Results suggest that measures of ubiquity and diversity of amenities do not, but neighborhood complexity and amenity complexity are correlated with the urban centrality of locations. Urban centrality is a strong predictor of socio-economic mixing, but both neighborhood complexity and amenity complexity add further explanatory power to our models. Our work combines urban mobility data with economic complexity thinking to show that the diversity of non-ubiquitous amenities, central locations, and the potentials for socio-economic mixing are interrelated.
The Russian invasion of Ukraine has caused large scale destruction, significant loss of life, and the displacement of millions of people. Besides those fleeing direct conflict in Ukraine, many individuals in Russia are also thought to have moved to third countries. In particular the exodus of skilled human capital, sometimes called brain drain, out of Russia may have a significant effect on the course of the war and the Russian economy in the long run. Yet quantifying brain drain, especially during crisis situations is generally difficult. This hinders our ability to understand its drivers and to anticipate its consequences. To address this gap, I draw on and extend a large scale dataset of the locations of highly active software developers collected in February 2021, one year before the invasion. Revisiting those developers that had been located in Russia in 2021, I confirm an ongoing exodus of developers from Russia in snapshots taken in June and November 2022. By November 11.1% of Russian developers list a new country, compared with 2.8% of developers from comparable countries in the region but not directly involved in the conflict. 13.2% of Russian developers have obscured their location (vs. 2.4% in the comparison set). Developers leaving Russia were significantly more active and central in the collaboration network than those who remain. This suggests that many of the most important developers have already left Russia. In some receiving countries the number of arrivals is significant: I estimate an increase in the number of local software developers of 42% in Armenia, 60% in Cyprus and 94% in Georgia.
Leaving probabilities (A) and expected arrivals per 1000 inhabitants compared to the population not living there (B) between 2015 and 2016.
Note: Scaled in respective quintiles where white represents the smallest quintile and black the largest.
The aim of this article is to analyze the contribution of social ties to moving to high-opportunity locations and assess whether their effect is more pronounced for low-income individuals as a compensation for economic resources. This is done by utilizing Swedish administrative data and by focusing on a wide range of relationships (observed directly or inferred from the data): close and distant family ties, former co-workers and university peers. For estimating the effect of social ties, we use linear probability models, where observed migration is regressed on individual-specific and target-specific characteristics. To account for the nonrandom sorting of movers between locations, we apply sending municipality–target municipality–occupation fixed effects. Our results suggest that there is a positive relationship between migration and the presence of links at given targets for all the examined contact types. The effects are even stronger if the targets are hard-to-reach municipalities (located in Stockholm County or a municipality with higher housing prices). We also demonstrate that, when moving to such opportunity-rich areas, ties to former co-workers and university peers are even more essential assets for those with limited resources. Furthermore, we show that direct help with housing through contacts is an existing factor that contributes to the effect of social networks on residential mobility. The results reinforce the idea that social ties may be of great help in reducing barriers to mobility and can be used to compensate for limited economic resources. We demonstrate the validity of our fixed-effect estimation strategy using a placebo contact approach.
The complex and diverse dimensions of social interactions in escape rooms. We collect the social interactions of teams, who must collaborate in the non-routine environment of escape rooms to successfully solve tasks and thereby exit the room within an hour. Interactions are represented as temporal networks, which capture skeletal structure of communication between team members. Each interaction is directed, can be emotionally neutral or charged (either positively or negatively), addressed to a particular person (pairwise) or to a wider group.
From sport and science production to everyday life, higher-level pursuits demand collaboration. Despite an increase in the number of data-driven studies on human behavior, the social dynamics of collaborative problem solving are still largely unexplored with network science and other computational and quantitative tools. Here we introduce escape rooms as a non-interventional and minimally biased social laboratory, which allows us to capture at a high resolution real-time communications in small project teams. Our analysis portrays a nuanced picture of different dimensions of social dynamics. We reveal how socio-demographic characteristics impact problem solving and the importance of prior relationships for enhanced interactions. We extract key conversation rules from motif analysis and discuss turn-usurping gendered behavior, a phenomenon particularly strong in male-dominated teams. We investigate the temporal evolution of signed and group interactions, finding that a minimum level of tense communication might be beneficial for collective problem solving, and revealing differences in the behavior of successful and failed teams. Our work unveils the innovative potential of escape rooms to study teams in their complexity, contributing to a deeper understanding of the micro-dynamics of collaborative team processes.
Combination of spatial, temporal and social network data of geolocated Twitter messages. (a) Home and work locations of users are identified through the distribution of timestamps on all their collected tweets within their most frequently visited spatial clusters. We assign a possible home location (8 p.m.–8 a.m.) and a possible work location (9 a.m.–5 p.m.) to each user45,46 as their most frequently visited location in the given period. The histogram represents the timeline of tweets for the clusters of a sample user. (b) Commuting is defined as the overhead distance between users’ home and work locations. The colorbar of the map indicates the income level of census tracts. (c) Twitter ego network of a sample user based on mutual followership. The coloring of nodes also corresponds to the level of income in the home tract of users.
Millions commute to work every day in cities and interact with colleagues, partners, friends, and strangers. Commuting facilitates the mixing of people from distant and diverse neighborhoods, but whether this has an imprint on social inclusion or instead, connections remain assortative is less explored. In this paper, we aim to better understand income sorting in social networks inside cities and investigate how commuting distance conditions the online social ties of Twitter users in the 50 largest metropolitan areas of the United States. An above-median commuting distance in cities is linked to more diverse individual networks, moreover, we find that longer commutes are associated with a nearly uniform, moderate reduction of overall social tie assortativity across all cities. This suggests a universal relation between long-distance commutes and the integration of social networks. Our results inform policy that facilitating access across distant neighborhoods can advance the social inclusion of low-income groups.
Discrepancy and over/underrepresentation of broad research areas. Discrepancy is defined as the percentage of scientists who are among the top 25% based on their online success but do not belong to the top 25% according to h index. Discrepancy is shown per research area for the entire sample of scholars (gray circle), only men (green), and only women (yellow). Circle size indicates the number of scholars who had article mentions on Altmetric in each of those three groups. Over / underrepresentation of broad research areas on Altmetric is evaluated in comparison with WoS.
Unbiased science dissemination has the potential to alleviate some of the known gender disparities in academia by exposing female scholars’ work to other scientists and the public. And yet, we lack comprehensive understanding of the relationship between gender and science dissemination online. Our large-scale analyses, encompassing half a million scholars, revealed that female scholars’ work is mentioned less frequently than male scholars’ work in all research areas. When exploring the characteristics associated with online success, we found that the impact of prior work, social capital, and gendered tie formation in coauthorship networks are linked with online success for men, but not for women—even in the areas with the highest female representation. These results suggest that while men’s scientific impact and collaboration networks are associated with higher visibility online, there are no universally identifiable facets associated with success for women. Our comprehensive empirical evidence indicates that the gender gap in online science dissemination is coupled with a lack of understanding the characteristics that are linked with female scholars’ success, which might hinder efforts to close the gender gap in visibility.
(A) The maximum spanning tree of the collaboration network across NUTS 3 regions in Europe reveals the importance of national centers. (B) Most of the repeated collaborations remain within country borders, and strongest ties are concentrated within close proximity of innovative hubs. (C) The 7 communities of the collaboration network span across countries, with the exception of Germany that is divided into two communities and Italy, but are mostly concentrated in large regions. (D) Repeated collaboration is organized into 23 smaller-scale clusters
a Cumulative distribution of income in a relatively equal town (Ajka, gold) and a relatively unequal one (Gödöllő, dark blue). Sampled social networks in Gödöllő (b) and Ajka (c). Node colors represent network communities revealed by the Louvain method in both networks. d Income inequality measured by the Gini index (Gi,2011) for towns with more than 15,000 inhabitants (n = 91) correlates with the fragmentation (Fi) of their social networks (Pearson’s ρ = 0.44). Gold dot: Ajka (Gi,2011 = 0.43, Fi = 0.3); dark blue dot: Gödöllő (Gi,2011 = 0.54, Fi = 0.36); blue dots: all other towns. Fitted line represents a linear regression Gi,2011 = 0.36 + 0.37Fi with R2 = 0.198. The shade area depicts 95% confidence interval. The dashed horizontal line represents the mean of Gi,2011 = 0.488. e We plot the correlation between town Gini scores in 2011 and 2016 (Gi,2011 and Gi,2016). f The relationship between network fragmentation (Fi) and inequality in 2016 is stronger in those towns where initial inequality (Gi,2011) is high. β, the marginal effect of town social network fragmentation (Fi) on the Gini of the town in 2016 (Gi,2016), becomes significant around the mean of the Gini in 2011 (Gi,2011). It increases as Gi,2011 grows. Points depict estimated marginal effects at the mean and bars represent their 95% confidence intervals (n = 474).
Social networks amplify inequalities by fundamental mechanisms of social tie formation such as homophily and triadic closure. These forces sharpen social segregation, which is reflected in fragmented social network structure. Geographical impediments such as distance and physical or administrative boundaries also reinforce social segregation. Yet, less is known about the joint relationships between social network structure, urban geography, and inequality. In this paper we analyze an online social network and find that the fragmentation of social networks is significantly higher in towns in which residential neighborhoods are divided by physical barriers such as rivers and railroads. Towns in which neighborhoods are relatively distant from the center of town and amenities are spatially concentrated are also more socially segregated. Using a two-stage model, we show that these urban geography features have significant relationships with income inequality via social network fragmentation. In other words, the geographic features of a place can compound economic inequalities via social networks.
Geography of respondents’ national (a) and global (b) networks. Node size represents number of connections. Links tend to connect the region to major cities or countries, but geographic proximity also matters.
Social connections that reach distant places are advantageous for individuals, firms and cities, providing access to new skills and knowledge. However, systematic evidence on how firms build global knowledge access is still lacking. In this paper, we analyse how global work connections relate to differences in the skill composition of employees within companies and local industry clusters. We gather survey data from 10% of workers in a local industry in Sweden, and complement this with digital trace data to map co-worker networks and skill composition. This unique combination of data and features allows us to quantify global connections of employees and measure the degree of skill similarity and skill relatedness to co-workers. We find that workers with extensive local networks typically have skills related to those of others in the region and to those of their co-workers. Workers with more global ties typically bring in less related skills to the region. These results provide new insights into the composition of skills within knowledge-intensive firms by connecting the geography of network contacts to the diversity of skills accessible through them.
Adoption peak prediction on local scales with the Bass model. (A) The Bass DE model estimates on the monthly adoption trend and a smoothed empirical adoption trend (3-month moving average) are compared. (B) Times of adoption peaks vary across towns. (C) Estimated pi and qi result in same adoption peak with fixed pi, except in early adoption cases when qi is high. (D) Estimated peaks of adoption correlate with empirical peaks of adoption (p=0.74). (E) Prediction Error in town i. (F) Dots are point estimates of linear univariate regressions and bars depict standard errors. Dependent variable is scaled with its maximum value and independent variables are log-transformed with base 10.
The urban–rural divide is increasing in modern societies calling for geographical extensions of social influence modelling. Improved understanding of innovation diffusion across locations and through social connections can provide us with new insights into the spread of information, technological progress and economic development. In this work, we analyze the spatial adoption dynamics of iWiW, an Online Social Network (OSN) in Hungary and uncover empirical features about the spatial adoption in social networks. During its entire life cycle from 2002 to 2012, iWiW reached up to 300 million friendship ties of 3 million users. We find that the number of adopters as a function of town population follows a scaling law that reveals a strongly concentrated early adoption in large towns and a less concentrated late adoption. We also discover a strengthening distance decay of spread over the life-cycle indicating high fraction of distant diffusion in early stages but the dominance of local diffusion in late stages. The spreading process is modelled within the Bass diffusion framework that enables us to compare the differential equation version with an agent-based version of the model run on the empirical network. Although both model versions can capture the macro trend of adoption, they have limited capacity to describe the observed trends of urban scaling and distance decay. We find, however that incorporating adoption thresholds, defined by the fraction of social connections that adopt a technology before the individual adopts, improves the network model fit to the urban scaling of early adopters. Controlling for the threshold distribution enables us to eliminate the bias induced by local network structure on predicting local adoption peaks. Finally, we show that geographical features such as distance from the innovation origin and town size influence prediction of adoption peak at local scales in all model specifications.
(a) The density of all the possible technological combinations on a complexity‐complexity plot (1980–2010), (b) The density of all observed technological combinations on a complexity‐complexity plot (1980–2010).
Relatedness has become a key concept for studying the diversification of firms, regions and countries. However, studies tend to treat relatedness as being time‐invariant or, alternatively, consider its evolution as exogenously given. This study argues that relatedness is inherently dynamic and endogenous to technological and economic developments. Using patent data, we test the extent to which relatedness between technologies developed along co‐location and differences in technological complexity in 1980–2010. Our results show that co‐located technologies are more likely to become related over time. Moreover, our results suggest that co‐location and complexity of technologies are conducive to the intensification of relatedness over time.